BILLIARDS.

OLD PAINTINGS AND ROOMS.

...


Old paintings.


Old Rooms.

 


 

 



OLD BILLIARD PAINTINGS.


The paintings below complete the masterworks already shown on this site (i). Together, they illustrate the interest in billards by artists for almost 500 years.


O.
Work by German painter Januarius Zick (1730-1797). (xxxix).



O."Women playing billiards" by Adolf Heinrich-Hansen (1859-1925), Danish painter (xxxxxv).



O. "La Partie de Billard sous (= Billiard Gameplay under) Louis XV" painted in 1855 by Belgian artist Jean Carolus (1814-1897) (ii).



O. "Le jeu de billard" (= the billiard game), painted in 1869 by Charles-Edouard Boutibonne (1816-1897), French artist born in Hungary ) (ii).




A quite nice gameplay behind the back!

O. "Ladies playing billiards" by Boutibonne too (xxxxxx).



O. Schmidt & Co. advertising CLUB FRIENDS SMOKE CIGARS, New York, United States (1886). Billiard players are smoking cigars (ii).



O. "Le Billard", unfinished, by Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894) (ii).



O.
"Le café de nuit" (= The pub by night) (1888) by Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) (ii).




O. "Au café à Arles" (= At the pub in Arles) (1888) by Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) (ii).



Note that Van Gogh and Gauguin got to know each other in Arles, France.

O. "The Billiard Room" - Château de Malmaison - Former Residence of Emperor Napoléon I and Empress Joséphine. (ii).




O. "Les joueurs de billard" (= Billiard players), early 1700. Nicolas Lancret (1690-1743). France (iii).




O. "Le jeu de billard" (= Billiard game), around 1870. Francesco Beda (1840-1900). Italy (iii).



O. "Un jeu de billard", replica (1888). William Henry Bartlett (1809-1854). Great-Britain (iii).




O. "Le jeu de billard", by Belgian Auguste Serrure (1825-1902) (iii).


O. "La Salle de billard au Ménil-Hubert" (= Billiard Room at Ménil-Hubert) (1892) by Edgar Degas (1834-1917) (iii).


O. "Elégante au billard" (1906) by Belgian Alfred Emile Léopold Stevens (1823-1906), famous for painting elegant women of his time (iii).



O. "Le Billard" (= Billiards) by Jean Béraud (1849-1935), born in Saint Petersburg, one of the greatest French painters of the Parisian life during the Belle Époque (iii).




Note the player (left), who is holding his billiard cue up to perform a massé shot as illustrated below.

The above picture is taken from Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., Modern Billiards. Ed. Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co., New York, United States, 1908.


The artists have not only used paintings to represent billiards, but also engravings, etchings, lithographs, prints, etc...



O. "Le jeu du billard", engraving dating from the late 1600s, by Nicolas Arnoult (born in France around 1650). The players are Louis XIV and the duchess of Burgundy (xxxxxxi).



O. Early 1880s chromolithograph poster for the J.M. Brunswick and Balke Company. ( xxxx).




O.The billiard monarch, contestants Albert Garnier and Maurice Vignaux in the grand national billiard tournament of 1874 for the Championship of America 1874, lithograph. (xxxxi).


The three players at top are from left to right GARNIER, VIGNAUX and DALY.

O. "Grand Billiard Tournament in New York City". Lithograph from Harper's Weekly, 1866, coloured version (xxxxxxii).


The Canadian Dion Brothers, inventors of the 'American series' (see Section 2. Books. A.) are featured here, Cyrille top right and Joseph below, in the middle.


O
. A massé shot. Popular Graphics Art (1882) (xxxxii).



O. "Billiard players", etching by Maxime Lalanne illustrating his brother Antoine's "Billiards" book (1886) (xxxxiii).



O. Excerpted from lithograph "Spotprent op (= Cartoon on) Lodewijk Pincoffs 1879" featuring a hexagonal billiard table. (xxxxv).



Other special non rectangular shapes are shown in Section 4. History Billiards and Tables.

O. A print dating from 1694 is also represented in the above section.

Below prints, each of them showing a woman playing billiards alone.

One of them, 1867, entitled

O. "Jessie Remained Alone at the Table" (xxxxxxii), by American Winslow Homer (1826- 1910),

and the other one, 1898,

O. Untitled (xxxxxxiii), by Swedish Anders Zorn (1860-1920).



O. Two works by Austrian Friedrich Carl von Scheidlin (1822-1913), shown in the Slovak National Gallery in Slovakia : "Billiards" and "While Playing Billiards" (xxxxxxiv), below, from left to right.

.......

Billards is also the subject of various artistic illustrations (such as those by Daumier, Meunier, Tackeray, browne, Thiele... in Section 6. Humour and Caricatures of this site).


O. "Souvenir of the Oxford historical pageant , 1907". Illustrations of billiards. (xxxxxxv).

Interior of a billiard room, Georgian Design, by Thurston & Co.

O. "The chances of billiards ", a scratch all around (xxxxxxvi). Lithography by Currier and Ives dating from 1869.

All that can happen when a dog and a cat are fighting under the table of a billiard room.

O. "Men in powdered wigs playing Billiards" by Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. (xxxxxxvii). Coloured engraving featuring cues AND maces .


O." Billiards in the home circle". Published by Kavanagh and Decker, billiard table manufacturers in New York, around 1869. (xxxxxxviii).

 

And to end up, two works featuring billiard fights as topics.

O. "Magasin théâtral"(= Theatre shop) (1830), engraving from Internet Archive Book Images. (xxxxxxix).

O. "Billiards - A double carom " (1874), lithography by Currier and Ives. (xxxxxxvi).


Two simultaneous punches.


 

 

 




OLD BILLIARD ROOMS.


IN EUROPE (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Ukraine).


Most of them are located in big castles.

1. France.

a) The Grand Trianon Castle at Versailles in Île-de-France – The billiard room of Napoleon I (ii).

b) La Baume Castle in Ardèche (ii), also known as "Versailles du Gévaudan", richly decorated inside. Note the armour suits in the billiard room.


c) Castle of Rambouillet, which used to be the royal, imperial and presidential residence in Yvelines (ii). "Game Room", former "Guard Room" decorated with a hunting trophy.


d) Castle of the Bretesche at Missilac in Loire atlantique (ii).

e) Castle of La Roche-Guyon in Val d'Oise (ii). The fifteen-leg billiard table model is rare.

f) Castle of Azay-le-Rideau in Indre-et-Loire.
Below, two views of the "Billiard Room".

(iv)

(xxvi)

g) Castle of Malmaison in Fontainebleau in Seine-et-Marne (v). See also the "Billiard Room" painting in the Château de Malmaison already shown in this section.


h) Château Marchais in Aisne, which belongs to the Monegasque family. Billiard room (ii).

i) Castle of Challain in Marne-et-Loire. Billiard room (vi).


j) Castle of Chaumont-sur-Loire in Val de Loire. Billiard room (vii).


k) Chaalis Abbey in Oise, now the location of the Jacquemart André Museum.
Below, two views of the billiard room (viii).


Fontaine-Chaalis (60), abbaye de Chaalis, musée Jacquemart André, rdc, salle de billard 1



l) Museum of Old Nîmes in Gard, Languedoc.

 Musée du Vieux Nîmes49 (ix)


m) Castle of Sourches, Saint-Symphorien in Sarthe. Billiard room with tapestry (ii).


n) Neuilly Castle and its billiard table in the 19th century , watercolour (xvii).

Note the lighting system above the billiard table.

o) Castle of Chereperrine in Orne. Billiard room in the late 1800's (xviii), with a fifteen-leg billiard table and decorated with many hunting trophies.


p) Castle of Pau. Marquetry billiard table (ca.1830) with inlaid fighting scenes (xx).


Billard du château de Pau 4332

q) Montrésor Castle in Indre-et-Loire. Billiard room with large painting (ii).

r) Nîmes (Gard, Languedoc). Prefecture, inside the big gallery with marquetry billiard table.

.(ix)

. (ix)


s) Castle of Méry-sur-Oise in Val d'Oise. Billiard room with various vaults, paintings and hunting trophies (ii).


t) The ‘Grand Café Parisien’ built in Paris by architect Charles Duval in 1856. It was considered the biggest café in the world at the time.

Inside view with billiard tables (etching 1865).

u) The famous ‘Café Suisse’ with billiard tables. Paris. 1861 (old etching).


v) Chantilly Castle. Oise. Billiard room with large painting (ii).


w) Meillant Castle. Cher. The ‘Grand Salon’ with billiard table and impressive fireplace (ii).




x) Hôtel Continental. Billiard room. Paris. 1910s (ii).


y) Louis Pasteur's billiard room. Arbois in Jura.

(xxiv)

z) Castle of La Motte-Tilly in Aube. Like most other castles, one of its richly decorated rooms is used for playing billiards.


(xxv)

z1) Brasserie Excelsior with billiards. Le Havre, rue du Chillou (ii).



z2) Castle of Guernon-Ranville, Calvados Department in Normandy. At the time, the billiard table was used as an operating table after the Allied had landed in 1944.

(xxxi)


z3) Flat of the Paris Police Headquarters. Billiard room in which General Leclerc received General Von Choltitz's surrender in 1944.

(xxxii)


z4) Castle of Canisy in Normandy. Billiard room.


(xxxv)


z5) Castle of Pesteils (Polminhac) in the Cantal Department. Billiard room.

(xxxvi)


z6) Castle of Val at Lanobre in the Cantal Department. Billiard room.

(xxxvii)


z7) Meudon Castle in the Hauts-de-Seine department.

Restoration scheme of Monseigneur's billiard room.

(xxxxiv)


z8)
Château de Maisons-Laffitte in the Yvelines department. Antechamber of René de Longuei. Billiard room.

(xxxxxxxv)

2. Belgium.

a) Room of the 'Académie Royale Liégeoise de Billard ASBL. Liège. Founded in 1906 and recognized by the Walloon Region as part of the Historical Heritage in 2022.


(xiv)

(xv)


b) Pouhon, historic building in Spa. Inside view.

(ii)


c) Billiard room,

(ii)

probably of a pub which originated as a coaching inn in 1627 and then became the current restaurant De Hoef in Uccle – Brussels.

3. Austria.

a) Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna. Room of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, married to Empress Elisabeth, also nicknamed Sissi.

(x)

Chromolithograph after a watercolour by Franz Heinrich (ca.1855/1860).

b) Löwsches Kaffeehaus, Vienna, 1842, inside view.

(xxi)

4. Germany.

In the early 1900s,

there are two establishments in Berlin bearing the names of great German billiard players

a) 'Kerkau Palast' with no less than 48 billiard tables, founded by Hugo Kerkau in 1910 after opening his 'Café Kerkau' in 1901.

(vi)


(vi)

Partial view of the 48 billiard tables.

b) 'Café Woerz und Billard-Akademie' founded by August Woerz around 1919.

(vi)

and

c) Leipzig Volkshaus billardsaal (= Billiard room of the Trade Union House in Leipzig).

.(xxix)

5. The Netherlands.

a) Grand Hôtel Café Restaurant Krasnapolsky, opened in Amsterdam in 1865, of which the spacious room below, shown around 1902,

(ii)

also housed billiard tables (see both illustrations below).

(vi)

(ii)


The World Three-cushion Championship (1929/1930) in Amsterdam might have been held in that large Krasnapolsky room.

b) Laag-Keppel-RCE. Interior of a billiard room in historical decor.

(xxxxxxxx)


6. Spain.

a) Palacio Real de Madrid. Sala de Billar (= Royal Palace of Madrid. Billiard room).

(xxvii)

b) Palacio Real de Riofrio. Salon de Billar (= Royal Palace of Riofrio. Billiard room).


(xxvii)

c) Castell del Remei in Catalonia.

 Castell del Remei 02 interior (xi)


d) Museu (= Museum) Romantic Can Papiol, Vilanova i Geltru in Catalonia.

(xxx)



e) Museo del Romanticismo, billar sala XXIII (= Museum of romanticism, billiard room XXIII), Madrid.

(xxxiii)

f) Miramar Jauregia (= Miramar Palace), library and billiard room. San Sebastián, Basque Country.

(xxxviii)

7. Portugal.

a) Real Castello (= Royal Castle) da Pena, Cintra. Sala de bilhar (= Billiard room).

(ii)


b) Belém National Palace, near Lisbon. Billiard room.

(vi)

8. Sweden.

Hallwylska museet (= Hallwyl Museum). National Museum in Stockholm.

Biljardbord i Biljardrummet - Hallwylska museet - 107096 (xii)

Below are three views of the imposing chandelier hanging above this splendid eight-legged billiard table.

(xii)

 

(xii).... (xii)



(
9. Poland.

Library of the Kozlowska Palace.


Kozlowka Palace 2018 P14 Library (xiii)

10. Switzerland.

a) Saint-Gingolph Castle.

(xvi)


This room, with fir and spruce woodwork, was used for playing billiards in 1655.

b) Oberhofen Schloss. Billardzimmer (= Oberhofen Castle. Billiard room). Canton of Bern. Switzerland.

. (xxviii)


11. Italy.

a) Castello di Masino, sala biliardo (= Billiard room in the Masino Castle), in Piedmont.

(xix)


b) Villa di poggio imperiale, sala dei biliardi con affreschi di Domenico Ferri (= Villa of the imperial hill, billiard room with frescoes by Domenico Ferri) (1865). Florence.

(xxii)


Below one of the frescoes.


(xxii)


c) Petraia sala dei biliardi (= The billiard room of the Villa La Petraia), Florence.

(xxii)

This billiard room and the previous one are World Heritage Sites in Italy.

12. Serbia.

Kraljevski Dvor, enterijer. Beograd (= Royal, inside, Belgrade). Billiard table with pockets.


(xxiii)


13. Latvia.

Billiard room of Rundale Palace, Bauska, Latvia.


(xxviii)

14. Hungary.

Hertelendy-kastély, biliárdszoba (= Hertelendy castle, billiard room).

(xxxiv)

15. Ukraine.

Billiard room in Vorontsovsky Palace, Crimea.

(xxxxvi)


16. Norway.

Billiard room of Mundal Hotel in Fjaerland.

(xxxxxxxix)

17. The United Kingdom.

Some History.

The billiard tables lost their pockets in France around 1850 (see Section 2. BOOKS. A. in this site) but not in the United Kingdom where:

1) some old games continue to be played, including the French carom game (with three balls, two white and one red), which becomes referred to as English billiards.

2) the new pyramid game (with 16 balls of different colours) was invented around 1860 and probably inspired the creation of snooker (with 22 balls) around 1875.

a) Wolverhampton.

A Thurston billiard table of the Victorian style Wightwick Manor (1887-1893) in Wightwick.

(xxxxxxx)


b) Liverpool.

The billiard room of the Speke Hall, a wood-framed wattle-and-daub Tudor manor in Speke.

(xxxxxxxi)

c) Isle of Wight.

Interior architectural detail in the billiard room of the Italian Renaissance-style Osborne House, built between 1845 and 1851. It is a former residence of the British royal family.

(xxxxxvi)


Below, statuary and curtains in the same room.

(xxxxxvi)


d) Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands.

Hauteville House, where Victor Hugo lived. Billiard room (ii).

Victor Hugo's portrait is in the middle.

e) Buckinghamshire.

Billiard room of the Waddesdon Manor in Waddesdon.

(xxxxxxxii)


f) Cornwall.

Billiard room of the Lanhydrock House in Lanhydrock.

(xxxxxxxiii)


g) Lancaster, Lancashire.

Billiard room (1872) of the "Judges' Lodgings", built around 1625, formely a fifty-room house now a museum.

(xxxxxxx)



Note the presence of a cue and a mace on the billiard table.

h) Dunham Massey, Greater Manchester.

Billiard room.

(xxxxxxx)



OUT OF EUROPE (Argentina, Canada, India, Japan, Mexico, the United States).


1. The United States.

a) New York. New York City.

"Phelan's Billiard Saloon", published print dating from 1859.

In 1850 Michael Phelan (1819-1871) was a billiard champion in the United States where carom billiards appeared around 1862.

t(xxxxvii)

b) Massachusetts. Boston.

"Melodeon Billiard Hall", colour liithograph (1878?) by Dominick I. Drummond (ca. 1830- 1899) & Charles 'C' Frank King Lith.(1839-1887).

(xxxxviii)

Very large. It was built about 20 years after the Grand Café Parisien.

c) North Carolina.

Billiard room of the Biltmore House, the largest privately-owned home in the United States. It was built near Ashville, North Carolina in the late 1800s. It has been turned into a museum.

(xxxxix)

d) California, San Simeon.

Billiard room in Hearst Castle.

(xxxxxi)


Below the tapestry hanging in the same room.


(xxxxxii)


e) Minnesota. Duluth.

Billiard room of Glensheen, historic mansion.

(xxxxxix)

f) Connecticut. Hartford.

- Billiard room of Mark Twain House.

(xxxxxxxvii)

- Mark Twain (1835-1910), writer, playing billiards in 1908.

(xxxxxxxvi)

2. Mexico.

- Yucatán, Mérida.

Billiard room (Interiors - 17) of Las Casas Gemelas (= The Twin Houses).

(xxxxx)

These two French Renaissance-inspired palaces, built in the early 1900s, hosted distinguished guests such as the Kennedys.

3.Argentina.

- Buenos Aires.

A billiard room in the Ortiz Basualdo Palace.

(xxxxxiii)


4. India.

- Mysore.

Billiard room of the Lalitha Mahal Palace Hotel.

(xxxxxiv)

5. Japan.

a) Osaka.

Inside of the Western-style-house of the Ikeda-shi Garden (-3).

(xxxxxvii)


Comment: The style of play on the table above is the four-ball game.

b) Tochigi, Nikko.

"Nikko Tamozawa Imperial Villa". Surrounded by a garden. It is a tourist attraction of the city. Below is its local style billiard room.

(xxxxxviii)

6. Canada.

Toronto.

Billiard room of the Spadina House, historic mansion, around 1900.

(xxxxxxxiv)

 

Note the decorative diversity and often the splendor of the billiard rooms and tables in this section.


At the time, billiards was practised in private places (palaces, castles) and public places (pubs, hotels, large rooms provided with several billiard tables), but also in various places such as

a) the University of Tübingen, Germany. Room with a billiard table in the early 1900s (xxxxxxxxi).


b) the Saint-Cyr (Military) School, France. Game room with billiard tables (ii).

c) Recreation hut with a billiard table, opened by the English Red Cross in France for the convalescent soldiers during the First World War (xxxxxxxxii).

d) Gaujot Military Hospital. Meeting room) - Billiard table – Piano. Strasbourg, Alsace (ii).

e) Sanatorium of St. Blasien, with a billiard table, in the town bearing the same name. Spa and health resort, located in the Black Forest (xxxxxxxxiii).

f) Cloister with a billiard table, Cassiobury Park Hertfordshire, England (xxxxxxxxiv).



For further examples, see website "Aux billards anciens".




(i) Mainly in sections 1. CUES Q. History and 4. HISTORY of BILLIARDS and its TABLES.
(ii)
Postcard.
(iii) Credit : WahooArt.com.
(iv) Credit : Peter Dutton. Forest Hills, Queens, USA, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(v) Credit : Moonik CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(vi) Credit : Public domain via Wikimedia Commons.
(vii) Credit : Manfred Heyde, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
.
(viii) Credit: Pierre Poschadel, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(ix) Credit: Finoskov, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(x) Credit : Schönbrunn Palace. Public domain via Wikimedia Commons.
(xi) Credit: AntonTaa, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xii) Credit: Hallwyl Museum. Jenny Bergensten, CC BY-SA, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xiii) Credit: Fallaner, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xiv) Credit: Gérard Debraz Président de l'Académie.
(xv) Credit: Pierre Forlin du Service des sports de la Ville de Liège.
(xvi) Credit: Joelgrandcollot, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xvii) Credit: François d'Orléans, Prince de Joinville (1818-1900), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xviii) Credit: Henri Magron (1897), CC0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xix) Credit: Alessandroga80, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xx) Credit: Château de Pau, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxi) Credit: Unknown author, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxii) Credit: Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxiii) Credit: Jablanov, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxiv) Credit: Remi Mathis, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxv) Credit: flo21, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxvi) Credit: asmoth360 from France, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxvii) Credit: Jose Luis Filpo Cabana, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxviii) Credit: Zairon, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxix) Credit: Karl Pinkau (1859-1922). Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxx) Credit: Angela LLop, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxi) Credit: HAVOT-DARNEAU, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxii) Credit: Tiraden, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxiii) Credit: Museum of Romanticism, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxiv) Credit: FOTO:FORTEPAN / Budapest Fováros Levéltára, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxv) Credit: Xfigpower, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxvi) Credit: Chatsam, CC BY-SA 4.0
, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxvii) Credit: Pymouss, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxviii) Credit: Josugoni, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxix) Credit: Januarius Zick, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxx) Credit: J.M. Brunswick and Balke Company, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxi) Credit: Unknown listed at botton of print but illegible, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxii) Credit: Popular Graphic Arts, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxiii) Credit: Scan by NYPL, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

(
xxxxiv) Credit: Franck Devedjian, CC BY-SA 4.0
, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxv) Credit: Rijksmuseum, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxvi) Credit: , CC BY -SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxvii) Credit: Unknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxviii) Credit: C. Frank King, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxix)
Credit: Warren Lemay from Cincinnati OH United States, CCO, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxx) Credit: Gildardo Sanchez, CC BY 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxi) Credit: Diderot, CCO, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxii) Credit: David/Winkler, CCO, via Wikimedia Commons - Acteon saw Artemis.
(xxxxxiii) Credit: Alejandro Witcomb, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxiv) Credit: Prashannajeet, CC BY -SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxv) Credit: Adolf Heinrich-Hansen, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxvi) Credit: Derek Voller, CC BY -SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxvii) Credit: , CC BY -SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxviii) Credit: Adam Jones from Kalowna, BC, Canada, CC BY -SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxix) Credit: Brandreaus2017, CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxx) Credit: Charles Edouard Boutibonne (1816 1897), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxi) Credit: Nicolas Arnoult, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
.
(xxxxxxii) Credit: Harper's Weekly, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxiii) Credit: Anders Zorn (1860-1920), Public domain,via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxiv) Credit: Friedrich von Scheidlin, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxv) Credit: Internet Archive Book Images, No restrictions, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxvi) Credit: Currier & Ives, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxvii) Credit: Thomas Rowlandson, CCO, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxviii) Credit: Popular Graphics Arts, Public domain via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxxix) Credit: Internet Archive Book Images, No restrictions, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxx) Credit: Photograph by Mike Peel (www.mikepeel.net)., CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia.Commons.
(xxxxxxxi) Credit: Rodhullandemu, CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxii) Credit: Daderot, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxiii) Credit: Otto Domes, CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxiv) Credit: Simon P, CC BY -SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxv) Credit: Marie-Lan Nguyen, CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxvi) Credit: Underwood and Underwood, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxxxvii) Credit: Jack E. Boucher, Photographer, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxix) Credit: Bjorn Erik Pedersen, CC BY -SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
(xxxxxxxx) Credit: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (= RCE), CC BY -SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons.

(xxxxxxxxi) Credit:Unknown author Unknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.
(xxxxxxxxii) Credit:National Library of Scotland, No restrictions, via Wikimedia Commons. File: Convalescent soldiers in France having a game of billiards in a recreation hut provided for them by the B.R.C.S.
(xxxxxxxxiii) Credit: UnknownauthorUnknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. File: Sanatorium St. Blasien 10 Muzigzimmer und Billardzimmer.
(xxxxxxxxiv) Credit: Charles Latham (1847-1912), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons. File: In English Homes Vol 1 Cassiobury Park Hertfordshire the billiard room in the cloisters.